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that even as we celebrate over the next couple of days, and feel free to stay up as late as you want, tomorrow is not a school night. make sure to bundle up. although, it won't be as cold as it was four years ago. make sure you know that what we are celebrating is not the election or swearing in of a president, what we are doing is celebrating each other. and celebrating this incredible nation that we call home. and after we celebrate, let's make sure to work as hard as we can to pass on an america that is worthy, not only of our past, but also of our future. god bless you. i love you. we will see you tomorrow. [applause]
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♪ ["we take care of our own"]
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♪ ♪
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["only in america"] ♪ >> as part of our inauguration
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fightge, the u.s. army's and drum corps -- they will escort president obama down pennsylvania avenue during the inaugural parade. ♪ [drum line] >> it began in april with the production team. it prepares the materials, the music, the drill that we do. parade marching does not require quadrilles, but we do a great deal of research with 18th-century music portrayed on modern instruments that aren't -- that are reminiscent of instruments during the revolutionary war.
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the rangers a range of vignettes -- are arranged vignettes music from the 18th century that has military origin. they are arranged and sequenced. we had a three sequences. we performed a wide variety of music from that era. there is roughly a balance between the five group, which is 24 soldiers, 24 soldiers in the beagle group, an 15-18 in the drum group. two instruments, the bass drum and a snare drum. combining those three angel -- ancient signaling instruments into modern arrangements is quite a challenge, but the results are magnificent. >> this afternoon, we're going to do a standing music rehearsal.
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we will stand in the formation in our rehearsal hall and play to the music that we will play for the president at the capitol. the first to thank you here is our drums playing cadence, and then we will go into a specific step that we march when we pass in front of a dignitary, in this case, the president of the united states. that is a way of saluted the dignitary, showing due deference and respect, and then we will play "yankee doodle" and then some traditional metal is before -- from the 18th-century arranged for today. ♪
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[fifes playing] >> i am with the fife and drum corps. for this year, it has been strenuous preparing for the inauguration. we have had multiple rehearsals, marching, trying to get everything perfect. we also are premiering one of cowardice sequences, corporate sequences, and we are memorized in the last few months. >> in preparation for the parade, we do or rehearsals. we had a lot of music to learn. we rehearsed it together. individually, we memorized the music. then we added it to the marching. that was a whole nother process of getting precise, getting in
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sync. marching together, finding music simultaneously. >> this will be my fifth inaugural parade. i first was for president clinton's second in operation in 1997. each one -- second inauguration in 1997. each one is special. i have and in a different place in my career each time i have done it. i have done something different with each and every inaugural parade. looking back on all four that i have done and the one we are about to do, each time it is an honor to be part of it. it is a historical event, something that will be in the record books, something people will look back on one day, and in some small way, i know i had a part of it. >> you can watch the public inaugural ceremonies as president obama begins his second term starting live monday at 7:00 a.m. eastern, and continuing all day on c-span.
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president obama will be sworn in at noon. we will show you the other festivities, including the capitol luncheon and the inaugural parade. >> throughout inauguration day, go online to see more videos and behind-the-scenes photos of the 57 presidential and operation at could also go to facebook -- you can also go to twitter or facebook. earlier today, the political action committee emily's list hosted on an operation brunch for some of the newly elected women of congress. some of the speakers, senator elizabeth warren of massachusetts and tammy baldwin of wisconsin. and house democratic leader in its policy. the new 113th congress consists of a record 20 women in the u.s. senate. this is about 45 minutes. [applause]
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>> good morning, everyone. [applause] >> thank you very much. good morning, everyone. thank you. this being a sunday morning, i want to begin by saying, this is the day that ko'd has made, let us rejoice and be glad. let us rejoice and be glad that as we gather here in the white house, barack obama is being sworn in officially as the president of the united states. earlier this day, joe biden was sworn in as vice president of the united states. tomorrow, tomorrow it will be ceremonial, but today, it is official. what a great day!
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what a great day we are listrating, emily's success with strength in numbers, women leading the way. isn't that exciting? 15 more women senators, democratic women in the united states senate. that is remarkable. in this cycle, 18 more democratic women in the house, bringing our number 261 women in the house. you hear a lot about -- 61 women in the house. you hear a lot about, how are some people going to reach women voters? the reason we are successful is that we're not just asking women for their vote -- we are asking them to serve. a seat at the table. that is why with emily's list's help, in the congress of the united states that was one in two weeks ago, the house democratic caucus -- women and
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minorities, lgbt make the majority of house democratic caucus. isn't that exciting? not only that -- they have seats at the head of the table. a majority of our ranking members, which means they will be chairman in a couple of years, you can applaud that -- [applause] they have a seat at the head of the table. i want to thank stephanie-rock at emily's list. isn't she spectacular? [applause] we're talking about strategic thinking. we're talking about true dedication. we're talking about success.
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none of this would be possible without the greatness of allan and malcolm. , for being so wonderful. what analysts list has done in its history has been transformative for our country. because of endless list, let in more women to congress and making more people aware that when women vote, women when, and when our issues come to the four -- every issue is our issue, whether it is small, the national security of our country, tammy duckworth, the economy, and every other issue. to be very specific, because of a family's list and some of you in this room, he will celebrate the 20th anniversary of family and medical leave. he enacted into law. [applause] >> than a two-year anniversary
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of lilly ledbetter legislation. forward if women are in the congress and committee. we will have to deal with issues like the safety of our children. thank you for making this a part of your agenda. you will have to be dealing with the issue that relates to violence against women. we need to pass that legislation. we have to deal with jobs. i want to say a personal thanks. if we did not have some many
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women in the congress we never would have the first woman speaker of the house. you haven't seen that the net. having strength and numbers for women leading the way are helping to change the playing field. i promise you this.
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it increases the level of civility in politics. we will change the environment in which politics is being conducted. we will elect many more women to public office. that is a very good thing for our country. thank you, and lee's list. we are emilie, and we ain't seen nothing -- -- thank you, emily's list. seene emilie, and we ain't nothing yet. >> are you emilie? --emily? -- emily? >> hello. i am elizabeth warren.
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about 25 years ago, i was a young mother. i got a solicitation letter from a group of women who said they were getting organized to get more women elected for public office. i thought that is a powerful idea. about 25 years later. people are taught about how i should grow wings and fly. she said he should do this. i can show you how and i can promise if you do emily's list will be with you every step of the way.
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[applause] today, i'm the first woman senator from the commonwealth of massachusetts. [applause] is a prettyt powerful idea. i am emily. [applause] >> i am claire mccaskill. [applause] the energy in this room is amazing. i am taking it with me. i will draw upon it many times over the next six years when there are tough votes ahead.
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many people heard of todd akin before i was a senator or a statewide official. i was the daughter of the first woman ever elected to the council in the town i grew up in. [applause] i knew what it took. it was not a mystery. it was willing to take risks and hard work. before anyone had heard of todd akin, she said she could not win. the terrain is too tough in a red a state like missouri. i said i have a plan. they did not listen. many did not return my calls.
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then there was emily's list. they listened. they returned my calls. stephanie and her team of hundreds and thousands of women across the country said we support what you are doing. we understand your plan. they got it. if this helps the extreme type a and when the republican primary that could be a gift for every candidates in the country by exposing his extreme views to the united states of america. it worked. emily's list, the power of many. they stand for the proposition. a little bit can mean a lot. they work the voters. they talk to women voters.
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they gave us strength and support. i thank you all from the bottom of my heart. i am very proud to be emily. [applause] >> good morning. i was raised the kansas city, missouri. when i think of morning i expect a response. good morning. i am from kansas city. i have gotten to work at emily's list for several years where i was able to support and recruit candidates. the results are always there. when anything i was asked to do was to step up. this year i got to serve on the
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presidential election campaign. [applause] many people ask how you deal with women's outreach into is the money. i often say i came by it honestly. i stand here on the shoulders of the women who come before here who never thought they could see an african-american president.
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stand up. who is emily? i am family. i know all of you are emily, too. [applause] >> good morning. you might be surprised to hear a man named jack say "i am emily." i work at the gay and lesbian victory fund. we learned a lot from emily's list about how to recruit and support candidates. i met no bigger fighters for progressive values in emily's list women. victory fund supported 180 candidates at all levels.
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nothing was like the pinnacle of all those races when we teamed up with emily's list to help elect the first out senator in the history of the united states. the partnership between emily's list and victory fund was like nothing we had done before. we made history. when tammy baldwin was elected in madison, wisconsin that glass ceiling shattered. it was amazing. the first woman senator in the history of wisconsin. [applause] i hope you can imagine what her victory meant to gay and lesbian americans, especially to
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young people. i am enemy because i know she removed barriers for all of us. [applause] >> hello. i served as the granite state along with our democratic senator and our democratic congresswoman. it is fair to say that all of us and answer to the name even our other united states senator is a woman.
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that means new hampshire is the first state in our country's history to be represented in congress and the governor's office entirely by women. [applause] that is not happen by accident. it happened because thousands of women over many years worked hand-in-hand to get women elected. it is because emily's list helped me when i was in the state senate. i even hired an emily's list staffer to manage my campaign. thank you matt burgess for a great campaign. we all turned out the women's vote. and they voted in overwhelming numbers for democratic
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candidates across the country. i have a big job in front of me. i know i am not a loan there are a lot of emilys in my life. we can see what we accomplish when we work together. in our family we are all emily. thank you. [applause] >> i have worked with emily's list for a very long time. in 1994 when i ran statewide for the first time in office that has never been held by a woman or a democrat, emily's office was there. i had the pleasure of being one
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of the girls on the bus as we toured across the southern tier of colorado. we're talking about how important that state was. we ate pizza together. we drank a few adult beverages together. it made a big difference. we read able to spread the news. i learned once you are emily you are emily forever. i am so delighted to have a chance to say that family and not only inspired me but now is
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inspiring a whole generation of new candidates, men and women, if you will change this country forever. i am here because i am emily and i will be emily forever. [applause] >> i am a military spouse from the great state of michigan, home of the governor jennifer. we will be representing michigan in tomorrow's inaugural parade. i seen the struggles are military families in door and the importance of making sure our government protect and serve as those who protect and serve us. as an attorney and a dean of one of the top law schools in
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the midwest, i run an institution that promote access to justice and six to train the next generation of leaders and public servants. early support from emily's list helped me raise my voice and share my story. the staffer came to michigan looked me in the eye and said he knew i had what it took to win. thanks to her support i was able to earn more votes than any other democratic candidates in the state of michigan. electing pro-choice democratic women meet early support an early investment in young female candidates. it means nurturing us, our careers, and strengthening our
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ability to lead. it also means recognizing that our vote is our boys. women voters everywhere are informed and engage in ready to participate. andy's list perseveres stands for all of us. thank you. [applause] >> i am senator tammy baldwin. thank you. thank you. thank you to all the incredible
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people in this room who have done so much for me and so much to help elect pro-choice women across this country. i am so proud to be one of nine emily's list women reelected in 2012 to the u.s. senate's and one of 20 women sworn in earlier this month, the most ever in our nation's history. [applause] no one runs for senate alone. no one runs for senate alone and wins. i was never alone, not for a single minute. you were with me every single step of the day. back in may 2011 when the senator announced that he was
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retiring, i convened a conference call to figure out whether there was a way i could step up and run. just like you have been with me for so long, emily's list was there for me at that moment. you were there day one when i ran for the house of representatives back in 1998. the pundits said i could not win. you were there with me every step of the way. i became the first woman to represents a woman in the house. and on the first day of this long journey you were there for me with sage advice, plenty of encouragement and a commitment to stand with me every single
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day. you follow it through and then some. thousands of you, your staff, your leadership that was not all. my campaign team developed their skills at emily's list either from your staff for excellent training. my senior advisers and others alumni working tirelessly on my behalf. there lot of people that doubted that i could win. when ever they did family would say she is been under estimated her entire career. she can do this.
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if i ever doubt i could win all i had to do was remember they had been with me my whole career. we can do this. there are many people here who did so much i'm going to thank you the best i know how. i'm going to ask you to do more. in my election night speech i told the crowd that was gather there that i was proud to have the honor of being the first woman elected from wisconsin and proud of the facts i would be the first openly gay member of the united states senate. [applause] i do not run to make history. i ran to make a difference.
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a difference in the lives of families 75 doric and pay the bills. students who are struggling with debt. the difference in the lives of veterans who fought for us and need someone fighting for them when they return home from war. the difference in the lives of all intrapreneur is trying to build a business and working people trying to build economic security. i ran to make a difference. i intend to make a difference. just like nobody runs and wins a senate race alone, no one moves a country forward alone. just like i could not have won the election without the people in this very room, we cannot
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move the nation forward without your continued involvement. look around you in this room today. it is extraordinary. on monday, looked across the mall. everywhere there are women whose leadership can change the course of history. thousands of them make a decision about whether to seek public office. too many will hear the voices of the senate. list that turn to emily's for help will find training and support. many will run and many will win. together we will move our nation forward. i am a united states senator
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tammy baldwin and i am emily. [applause] please join me in welcoming my friends and an extraordinary leader whose tireless work led to the election of women across our nation be president of emily's list. [applause] ["girl on fire"] >> thank you so much.
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thank you to our national co- chair and our coast and sponsors and a special thank you is your council members. it is always great to see so many good friends, especially when we have so much to celebrate together. look around. this is what making history looks like. it is a senate with 21 men, including the first women senators from massachusetts and hawaii. it is 16 new pro-choice democratic women in congress.
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it is the first openly gay senator the first asian american woman senator. the first congress women who served in combat. we have three new women under the age of 40. it is a congress with no alan west, no joe walsh, and no todd akin. [applause] we have fought so hard. we have one so much. we have come so far i am so proud as a woman and as an
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american. make no mistake. we are not done. we are still going to have to protect our middle-class from devastating cuts to programs that families rely on. we're still going to face threats to workers and voters rights. we're still going to hear phrases like legitimate rape and trans vaginal probe. it does not listen to reason. they sure do not learn from experience. if they remain as dangerous as ever. i have had enough playing defense. enough. we have earned this at the
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table many times over. now it is our time to take our place at the head of the table. this was a mandate for women's leadership. our lives were under attack. our candidates ran and won across the country. our vote proved decisive in electing the president. now it is our turn to drive the conversation. [applause] nobody works harder to turn out women's voters and emily's list. nobody knows more about why they voted the way they did. they stood up not just to preserve the right to make their own health care decisions but to secure equal pay for equal work, it to protect
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medicare for seniors and to build an economy that works for the middle class. that is exactly what we should expect from washington. i am proud to say we have a president we can count on it. president obama has taken strong stands with women and families on health care, equality, economic security. he appointed two fantastic women to the united states supreme court. he chose his biggest rival to be his biggest partner on the world stage. we are so proud of hillary clinton.
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president obama trusts women and women can trust president obama. we have reason to feel good about where we stand today. with the movements like the one we have built together we have reason to aim high in the years to come. last cycle we more than quintupled its the size of our community. we were using technology to open our doors to another generation of women and men where we meet up. we are reaching them where they are, helping them understand what is at stake and adding their voices to our movement. i am proud to say that emily's
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list is now more than 2 million members strong. let's make it 5 million. let's do it. listt to see emily's expand to the next cycle. i literally mean right now. immediately. there are donor cards at your table and candidates who need to now. we are in the business of winning elections. i have been in that business awhile now. i have opened a lot of envelops from emily's list of donors. i have seen a lot. i have accepted speeches and i have helped make a few
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republicans give them. this is the difference between joe walsh and tammy, between todd akin and claire mccaskill, between mitt romney and barack obama. [applause] it matters. that is why even as campaigns evolve, our committment to winning will never change. nuts and bolts matter. we will continue to be there at the moments that matter most. we were there from the start in massachusetts.
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i answered all of elizabeth warrants questions about running for office would be like. she decided to run anyway. we were there in wisconsin when everyone else saw tammy baldwin as a long shot. i think they're close to did not think she had a shock at all. now they're calling her senate term. we read their in new hampshire for years building a pipeline of great candidates. new hampshire has and all women delegation led by a great democratic woman. we will be there to hold
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republicans accountable when they threaten our rights. we will be there to stand with our candidates when karl rove goes on the attack. we will be there in the final moments when mobilizing women voters makes all of the difference. the only thing that will change is that we want more members joining our cause, up more pro- choice women coming up through the pipeline. more emily's list candidates running up and down the ballot. most of all, more nights like the ones we had on november 6. [applause]
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leadinglist has been this fight for 28 years. we have seen so many milestones. we have stood by so many amazing women. we stepped in to help women take the next step. it started with barbara mikulski and has not stopped since. barbara boxer, kay hagan, elizabeth warren, tammy baldwin, and the numbers keep going. we have seen so many incredible women in this room today. all of those victories have less us to this moment.
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we are ready to take the next step. we are ready to be the springboard for the next generation of democratic women leaders. ready to elect more democratic women governors in 2014. ready to help nancy pelosi get her gavel back. ready to put a democratic woman in the oval office. the stars with putting a woman on the democratic ticket in 2016. [applause] our goal is within reach. our movement has never been stronger. our time is now. there is strength in numbers and in this room.
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let's celebrate. tomorrow let's get to work. thank you so much. welcome to the stage all of the amazing emily's list candidates past and present. come on up. thank you all. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
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>> i brought to say no, do solemnly swear -- -- barack hussein obama do solemnly swear -- >> watch inaugural festivities live and all day at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span, c-span radio, and and the conversation by phone, at facebook/c-span, or on twitter.
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>> now, discussion about the second terms of u.s. presidents. this is just under one hour. host: we want to welcome author and historian richard norton smith. thanks for being with us. the most memorable second term address was by abraham lincoln. guest: people think that it outranked the gettysburg address. i would say it is the greatest lay sermon delivered in america. anyone who questioned his spirituality, read the second inaugural. it is a remarkable address. it is not a celebratory speech. at that point, the war is almost over.
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the most obvious thing to do would be some congratulations. host: with malice toward none. guest: that is the magnanimous side. until the crime of human slavery was removed from the american landscape, the united states would not be right with god. it is an extraordinarily spiritual address. lincoln was looking ahead to reconstruction. host: this morning in the "new
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york times," the historian one of a number of people offering advice for the president's second speech. guest: i would not offer advice to the president. the second inaugural is one of the more inaugurable addresses. i see a country one-third ill clothed, ill fed. host: as the author of the book "patriarch," he delivered the first second inaugural address.
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is it inaugurable? guest: he had a thin skin. he was not accustomed to the kinds of press attacks he was experiencing. he did not want to run for a second term in the first place. he was talked into it. it is the shortest inaugural address on record. 200 words. it was in philadelphia, which was in the capital. basically called god to witness. if he failed to live up to the oath he had just taken, there were be punishment for that. it was a strange speech.
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very personal, very revealing. host: richard norton smith has written a number of books. he is now working on a new book on vice-president nelson rockefeller. guest: they had a number of parties there, christened the house. host: also affiliated with george mason university. we have now had a period of a number of second term presidents. reagan, clinton, and bush. guest: this is the second time in our history when we have had three successive two-term
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presidencies. three men going to their second inaugural in a row. the only other time that happened was in the 19th century. jefferson, madison, and monroe. you're right. it is an interesting counterpoint to the polarization we talk about. host: i want you to listen to an interview we conducted on december 18, 2008 with outgoing president george w. bush. listen to what he said, also his body language. [video clip] >> you said, i am optimistic that we can change the tone in washington.
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>> that was a hopeful person saying that. >> are you less hopeful? >> we work together, there were some bipartisan accomplishments but the rhetoric got very tough. some people here in this town use the politics of personal destruction to advance their agenda. i do not want to sound self- serving, but i have not. i do not think a president should. i was hoping for better tone, and it did not happen. host: as you reflect on george w. bush at the end of his two terms. guest: president obama has said things better very similar.
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it is not just about washington. washington is a reflection of a broader culture. we live in a polarized culture. we live in a culture that celebrates -- notoriety is the quickest ticket to 15 minutes in the 24 hour news cycle. the other enormous difference that contributes to this -- i do not know how you reverse it. 50 years ago, you had two political parties that were both appealing to the center. republicans had barry goldwater, but they also had jacob javits.
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the diversity of the parties, by history. you can see the result of the party system we have now. host: a caller. caller: i am concerned about how history is going to deal with the fact that the senator mitch mcconnell and the senate and house republicans all stood up and said, we're going to stop this presidency.
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we're going to make sure it is a failed presidency. how is history going to deal with that? why has the press and the media given republicans a pass on this serious issue? it is almost like it is unpatriotic, totally unethical for them to do this. guest: it reflects the evolution of the political culture. he used to say, i am a man of unyielding principle. and i am a man of unbending flexibility. it is a reflection of this political culture, which is along the lines i just described.
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host: i want to read you from "the washington post." barack obama begins his second term as the most visible public figure in the world. his face has appeared on more than 12,000 nightly newscasts.
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your thoughts? guest: because it is an important point -- the first part of what you read, the extraordinary visibility, the immediacy, the fact the president -- 500 years ago, presidents were names in newspapers. they were not vivid to people. they did not come into our homes in the way the modern president does. it happened to ronald reagan, it happened to bill clinton, george bush. and that is, obama fatigues. three years from now, people will be writing columns about obama fatigue, just as they did about clinton fatigue and bush fatigue and reagan fatigue.
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franklin roosevelt only gave 30 fireside chats in 12 years. he understood instinctively the dangers of overexposure. he also controlled the media to an extent that modern presidents could not hope to. host: looking back, fdr broke the unwritten code of serving more than two terms. in today's modern age, could we have more than two terms for any president? you worked for ronald reagan. if his health was better, of course, would he have run for a third term? guest: i doubt it. he talked about it after he left office.
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he was going to campaign for appeal of that amendment. he thought the american people should be able to vote for anyone wanted to vote for. it is very difficult to imagine after eight years of office -- we've used up our presidents. that is why this string of two- term presidents is really so unusual. we have a string of one-term presidencies before that. that became the norm. host: let me share with ronald reagan said in january of 1987. [video clip] >> i have one major regret. i took a risk with our action in regards to iran. it did not work.
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for that, i accept full responsibility. it was not wrong to try to save lives. certainly, it was not wrong to try to secure freedom for our citizens held in barbaric captivity. [applause] but we did not achieve what we wished, and serious mistakes were made in trying to do so. we will get to the bottom of this. i will take whatever action is called for. host: a look at second terms, nixon and watergate and the iran controversy with ronald reagan. guest: fdr coming off the greatest victory in history stumbled badly when he tried to pack the supreme court, and
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tried to purge conservatives in the south from democratic primaries. you could argue lyndon johnson interpreted his mandate in 1964 as a blank check in vietnam. that is one of the great dangers that confronts presidents. i do not think there is a second term curse. i think there are a number of factors. i think the word mandate should be removed from the white house dictionary. in a polarized area, presidents have a tendency to over- interpret. host: let me add this iconic photograph of president bill clinton, hugging monica lewinsky. only the second president to
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face impeachment. guest: we have been told by people who should know that president clinton was willing to use some of the political capital he had. he won a significant, decisive victory over bob dole in 1996. he was prepared to move on entitlements, the so-called third rail of american politics, which would have required him spending a lot of political capital. then when the whole scandal broke, that was no longer a viable option. host: let me share with you this story from "the washington post." there is one sentence from this article i want you to react to.
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mcdonough is seen as an obama true believer who wants to keep an eye on burnishing his legacy. guest: i think the press maybe has a tendency to exaggerate a little bit, the tendency to say that second terms are all all about legacy. the very moment you are celebrating whatever mandate you have for reelection, you realize you're also a lame-duck. in this town, that means with every passing day you have that much less power and influence.
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presidents in their second term have a very narrow window of opportunity in which to achieve big things. that is what makes this year so significant. host: we welcome our radio listeners. we're talking with author, historian richard norton smith. the cover story of "christian science monitor" - a look inside as some of the more famous second terms richard norton smith is talking about. a call from the bronx, new york. caller: if the losing presidential candidate is not an office holder, does he get to participate in the inauguration? host: we know that mitt romney
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will not be here tomorrow, neither president bush. guest: president bush 41 is just out of the hospital. i wonder if jimmy carter -- host: he will be in attendance, as well as bill clinton. guest: that is a relatively new tradition. herbert hoover was invited to the kennedy inaugural in 1961. he was a very close friend to the president's father. the weather was so bad that he really could not get here. but he intended to be here.
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host: ronald reagan had the warmest and coldest inauguration days. guest: the great story about the weather -- william howard taft, who had this self deprecatory sense of humor -- there was a blizzard. he said, i always thought it would be a cold day when i would be elected a president of the united states. there have been efforts recently to debunk the direct cause and effect. i do not know they have been successful. host: a caller on our independent line. caller: i want to bring attention to george
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washington's first inauguration. it was at a little church called st. paul's chapel. that is where george washington adjourned congress during the inauguration, to go down there and pray. during that prayer meeting, george washington asked for the blessings of god. the little chapel is located on the same territory where the world trade center was destroyed. i thought that was interesting, because washington said if we ever turned our back on god, god would lift his hand of protection and prosperity from this nation. just a few years ago, washington's monument there was damaged so badly that we can no longer go into it.
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do you know where his second inauguration was? guest: congress hall, in philadelphia. you can visit it. host: under article 2, section 1 of the constitution, the oath of office is listed in the constitution. "so help me god" is not. guest: that's right. they're still arguing about whether george washington said it or not. various eye witness accounts. a bunch of people report the same event. host: calvin coolidge was sworn in in 1923 and had a second ceremony just a few blocks from the white house at the willard
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hotel. our guest is richard norton smith. we're looking at presidential second terms. one of the issues remembered by ronald reagan was dealing with the soviet union. explain the political situation in washington, d.c. that he was facing. guest: people who think of the reagan second term within the broad definitions of the curse, they refer to it as [indiscernible]. tax reform, the elimination of an entire class of nuclear weapons. reagan and his first term had spoken about the evil empire. one thing led to another.
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there had been no discernible progress. i do not think many people on january 20, 1981 would have anticipated ronald reagan's greatest historical accomplishment would be significant arms control. not just slowing the rate of increase in nuclear arms, but actually doing away with the whole class in what became known as the inf treaty. host: a speech in june of 1987 in berlin. [video clip] >> we welcome change and openness.
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we believe that freedom and security go together. the advance of human liberty, the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. there is one sign that the soviets can make that would beunmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. general secretary gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the soviet union and eastern europe, come to this gate. mr. gorbachev, open this gate. mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. [applause] host: why was that speech so important to his presidency? guest: that was vintage reagan. reagan going to the heart of
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the matter, using plain language. anyone could understand it. what he regarded was the moral issue involved, but it coexisted with this desire to find a peaceful path to coexistence. we do not know to this day -- we may never know all of the influences, all of the factors that shape the reagan's attitude, evolving attitude towards the soviet union. i would not underestimate the role of nancy reagan, who was the ultimate protector about his legacy and who wanted that legacy to include the role of peacemaker.
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host: as the head of the reagan library, you had a chance to sit down with former president ronald reagan in the early 1990's. how did he reflect on this time in office? guest: he loved to tell stories. he did not tell a lot of washington stories. he told lots of hollywood stories, lots of dixon, illinois stories. after his illness was diagnosed, you could almost measure his progress because the repertoire of stories narrowed. at the end, i am told he would still talk about -- the thing he was proudest of was a lifeguard in dixon, illinois saving 77 lives.
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host: caller from silver lake, illinois. caller: i have a few comments to make. all this time, there is a split in the united states on political parties. why is it that we have such a big divide? i do not see any future of obama trying to get with the other party. he wants to heckle them, probe them like you would a mad cow or lion. host: is it more partisan than it has been in the past?
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guest: what is different is how it feels. you cannot escape it. the nature of cable tv, which is enormously significant disproportionate to its audience in studying the tone for the debate. talk radio, the internet. these are all means of communication that saturate and reinforce and exaggerate our differences. it is all about conflict. i think that as much as everything else contributes to the sense that people have that we are more divided than we have ever been before. george washington and john
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adams, a mob gathered outside washington's homa, denouncing his neutrality. host: we're looking at the veterans affairs secretary. the military, department of defense playing a big role in tomorrow's ceremony. guest: dwight eisenhower took very personally nixon's defeat. he said he knew how the condemned man felt, watching the scaffolding being built.
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host: people are talking about vice president biden in 2016. is that the measure of a successful presidency? guest: it is, but history argues that the last time that happened -- andrew jackson was able to install martin van buren. arguably, americans were voting for a third reagan term albeit kinder and gentler. one of the problems for the first president bush was, he spent the first four years with
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the true reaganites looking over his shoulder. it complicated his political life. host: during his acceptance speech in 1988, he talked about a kinder, gentler nation, nancy reagan said, kinder or gentler than what? that is how the story goes. [laughter] a caller from hastings, england. welcome to the program. caller: the speech that in winston churchill made, i want to quote part of that. it relates to what the gentleman has just been talking about, technology and changes and the way people are influenced by technology. it said, "the stone age may
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return on the gleaming wings of science, and what might now shower immeasurable material blessings upon mankind, may even bring about its total destruction." i think he is talking about the weapons and guns we have now, also the attacks that hackers could make about the defense of america. if they did dysfunctionize the whole system, what would happen with all the gun-holders in america? if you want to get food from the supermarket, what do you do?
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host: thanks for watching us from great britain. guest: i think there are lots of folks who are surprised at the pace of technological change. host: part of a cover story, looking at the president's second term, this focusing on foreign policy and and domestic issues.
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the president is facing a $16, $17 trillion debt. he is facing a pullout from afghanistan and our role in the world. guest: it is interesting. leadership, what does that mean. if you go back on the eve of the world war, the number of foreign military installations the united states had, compare that with today. it was well under 100. the cold war has had an enormous transforming impact. dwight eisenhower cited all of
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this in his famous farewell address. i think there is a legitimate debate to be had over what is -- that is as old as the republic. washington's generation believed united states would be an asylum for the world's oppressed. it was a place to which victims could come and enjoy the fruits of liberty. there was no sense that we were going to impose our vision or values on the rest of the world. host: this question, in case you missed earlier. why is the president having two swearing-in ceremonies? according to the inaugural committee, it has happened on six previous occasions. one today at the white house,
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one tomorrow at the capitol. guest: it was at the height of the war. his health was failing. they did away with most of the pomp, and had the ceremony on the grounds of the white house. host: a caller on our republican line. caller: will george w. bush be remembered as a good president, or a bad president?
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do you think president bush hurt the republican party? guest: i will leave the second question to the pundits. i am not a pundit. i do not mean to be evasive. as a historian, the world is still too close to the bush years. harry truman was unable to get insurance, and yet we credit him with planting the seed. it set in motion events leading to the current health care plan.
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george w. bush spoke about the need for immigration reform. he also talked about privatizing parts of social security, more controversially. we will not know for some time the course of those issues. my hunch is, he will be ranked higher than he was on leaving office immediately. that is often the case with former presidents. favorable, unfavorable ratings that show in the four years he has been out of office that his approval ratings have increased fairly substantially. host: we are less than 100 days from the opening of his
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presidential library. this is exactly what the president will be looking at across pennsylvania avenue from the reviewing stand. it is the riser. all cameras will be focused on the reaction the president is giving to the floats and military parades. you mentioned the speech by george w. bush. this is from may 2006. [video clip] >> tonight i want to speak directly to members of the house and senate. an immigration reform bill needs to be comprehensive. all elements of this problem must be addressed together, or none of them will be solved at
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all. the house has passed an immigration bill. the senate should act by the end of this month, so we can work out the differences between the two bills and congress can pass a comprehensive bill for me to sign into law. america needs to conduct this debate on immigration on reason, and a respectful tone. all this need to keep some things in mind. we cannot build united country by inciting people to anger, or exploiting the issue of immigration for political gain. real lives will be affected by our debates and decisions. every human being has dignity and value, no matter what their citizenship papers say. host: you hear what the president said six years ago. a couple of campaigns have been held since then. most noticeably what mitt
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romney did and did not get in 2012. guest: there is a sense that the election returns have consequences. it is transparently in the self interest of republicans, who increased their share of the vote among the fastest growing block of american voters, latino voters. it is certainly much more favorable to immigration reform than when he made that speech six years ago. host: "the washington post" has this piece. one sentence i want to get your reaction to. he talks about some of the executive orders put in place.
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-- guest: presidents are rated for their ability to overcome great obstacles. traditionally, that means how they manage a crisis. an economic depression, a war. in this town and this time, in many ways the crisis itself generated. we have generated a political system that is rewarded for preventing things from happening, rather than making them happen. apart from individual issues, whether it is a gun safety or
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the economy or foreign policy, the challenge is to overcome those obstacles that the political culture place in front of them. host: a call from cincinnati, ohio. caller: in a country where originally white people were not even citizens of this country and now we have a black president, i think we've come a long way. i feel that president obama has not done enough for either side. i think in the beginning it was an issue for him. now he's just like, i am going to be the president. but there are still people who cannot get past that. how does that affect his second
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term? i have to say, particularly republicans -- how do we get people over the issue of his race? guest: the sad reality is, there are some people that -- i do not think we want to make the mistake of exaggerating their numbers -- there are some people for whom they will never get over the issue of race. there are other people who quite sincerely, for reasons having nothing to do with race, believe that the president's agenda, in their estimation, is too fill-in-the-blank. the larger issue is how we create a political process in which any president -- the last
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presidents have been polarizing figures. in that, barack obama is not different from his predecessors. the larger question i would suggest to the caller, is the larger issue, how do we create a political process in which people of good will are rewarded for finding common ground, rather than punished? host: it is been quoted, behind every great man is a great woman. we look back at every first lady, beginning with martha washington.
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guest: these were remarkable woman. many of them were more interesting than their husbands. their lives were not defined and limited by political ambition. there are tragic stories among these women. there are lots of unknown stories of great service, great sacrifice. it is a wonderful window of the evolution about the role of women in society generally. we're going to take a look every week for 40 weeks. we will have this featured on our web site at
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>> we are featuring first lady betty ford. in two and a half years, she did redefine that job. guest: she did. when it became clear they had no choice, she was less than thrilled. she did not change. she said things in that famous interview on "60 minutes" that i am not sure the first lady could say today. at a time when americans desperately needed to fill reconnected to the people in the white house, that candor and openness and honesty. coming clean with her breast cancer surgery.
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she contributed to saving untold numbers of lives. she said afterwards, that is the first time that i realize the impact a first lady could have. she was in the hospital, listening on the radio to the fact that thousands of women following in her footsteps were getting breast exams, mammograms. they were going for check ups inspired by her example. who knows how many lives have been saved as a result? the first words that president carter spoke were to thank his predecessor for all he did for the country.
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host: a call from columbus, ohio. caller: my name is sandra. i do not think it has to do with black or white issue or republican or democrat. the parents have neglected to be the parents. the family has broken down. they do not take their children to church. they let their children walk around with these blue jeans below their behind. they buy them $100 tennis shoes instead of getting good insurance policies with the money, or saving the money for the children. there is no president that can take care of that. some of this has got to start with the home values. these parents have got to step
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up to the plate and stop trying to be buddy buddy with their children, and be parents. guest: this is a fuzzy area where i think we expect too much of our president. we tend to assume that a president -- how many times have we been told that the president is the most powerful person in the world? presidents spend much more time reacting to events that are essentially beyond their control than they do to controlling events. the president may often reflect the popular culture. he may tap into popular culture. it is unrealistic to think that he can dictate or redirect the popular culture.
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host: do presidents have time to think, reflect? guest: that is an interesting question. he went out of his way to set time aside exactly for that. weekends at camp david, the time he spent at the old executive office rather than the oval office. it is true that the president, like any executive, needs time to ponder the long-term implications of what he is doing. anyone who is successful in that office will set aside that time. host: if you were to give advice to president obama for the next four years, what would you tell him?
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guest: i would not try to give him advice. at the risk of being presumptuous, i would say that the great danger for any second term president, whether you say playing to a legacy or hubris -- on the one hand, you want him to be bold. you want to make history. but you have to calibrate that in some ways against what is realistically achieve achievable. it is a tough time for anyone. if he were a republican, i would say the same thing. it is a difficult time for a president raised on stories of the bully pulpit and the ability of a president to set a national agenda.
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because of the internet, the technology, conflicting conversations that are going on -- people are not listening to the pulpit, or they are competing with it. host: richard norton smith, thank you for being with us. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> c-span2, created by america's cable companies in 1979, brought to you as a service by your local television provider. >> senator schumer, senator of new york, what are the hardest
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part of your job right now? >> the hardest part is try to make sure that everybody -- there'll be a huge crowd. that everybody gets to their places, their seats, they're standing in places. there was a big problem four years ago, not the fault of the committee, but there were so many people. we are trying to deal with these huge numbers of people. we have done a couple of things. we are using an iphone app -- whoever gets a ticket, there will be a gps-related application telling them how to get to their seats. last time, people waited on line for hours, and when it got to the gate, there were told, you're at the wrong date. we are building cell phone towers on the mall surface. people can call in if they are lost or they got separated from
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their party. we also have hundreds of volunteers who will be scattered, not only on the mall, but a mile or two from it, telling people, let me see your ticket, you go this way or that way. >> social media -- the committee has over 49,000 facebook fans. >> we are using lots of social media. we're getting the word out in every way. there is a lot of excitement. every senator gets a certain number of tickets. i put most of mine up for lottery. we had tens of thousands of people apply for the lottery. >> what numbers are you expecting? >> the secret service does not allow us to say. hundreds of thousands. >> take us through your day leading up to the ceremony. >> a week early. first off, you check that everything is ok. then, i get into a car and go
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over to the white house where the president and mrs. obama, my wife, and i, and everybody on the inaugural committee, we will have teeth. he and i pride alone in the car over to the capital. -- ride alone in the car over to the capital. i promised i would not bring up politics. then we wait in an anteroom where we will serve greek style yogurt to people. and we marched out onto the platform at a ceremony.
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CSPAN January 21, 2013 1:00am-3:30am EST

Series/Special. Preparations for the presidential inauguration.

TOPIC FREQUENCY Washington 18, Us 13, United States 11, Ronald Reagan 8, America 8, Tammy Baldwin 6, Richard Norton Smith 6, George W. Bush 5, Emily 4, U.s. 4, Wisconsin 4, Michigan 4, Massachusetts 4, Clinton 4, Bush 3, Elizabeth Warren 3, Bill Clinton 3, Obama 3, Illinois 3, Barack Obama 3
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